Holla Mexico! Background + Visits

Murales_Rivera_-_Markt_in_Tlatelolco_3

Before I start researching about our visits I was very much interested to find out about the history of Mexico city and general the history of Mexico. I never came across in detail the history of Latin America so I felt it is important for me to get an idea of the political and economical background in order to understand the Why the city and its Architecture is formed the way it is today and how it transformed from the 100bc until today. I watched a a documentary (recommended)

Part 1 –>www.youtube.com/watch?v=idLrPQlSQiU

Part 2 –>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MyZ0FzJ73n4

Part 3–>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tXUrarqmchE

Part 4–>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0SuCn0HH-Q

part 1 ,2 and 4 are the most interesting ones. (Part 3 focus on the Mexican and US war ..after a while it gets really boring…)

Below you can find my notes.( sorry for the long text).  I tried to summarise the key points or the points that were more interesting to me.

  1. Teotihuacan the city of the Gods the first city of ancient mexico! 100 BC 125.000 citizen
  2. 1400 sq kilometres
  3. 12 sq miles
  4. a quarter of a million people the largest city of the world.
  5. 2 masive temples the pyramid of the sun and the pyramid of the moon
  6. 200 feet high
  7. By the 6th century was abandoned over run by hostile tribes of the north
  8. Maya 750 BC, and by 500 BC
  9. Tola (north)- Toltec empire – if you are a Toltec you are a great person, saint person 900-1168
  10. Aztecs artificial island to protect from invading’s
  11. Tenochtitlan–>Lake Texcoco
  12. Aztecs where guided to the land from a Ancient prophecy
  13. Aztec legend that their gods told them to build a city where they spot an eagle on a nopal eating a serpent, which is now Mexico City
  14. They were told to build their capital where they found an eagle on a cactus–> that’s the symbol on their flag!
  15. They build the city in the lake and the city was safe from attacks
  16. “Cninenpas” islands artificial islands
  17. Huge pyramid twined by 2 temples one for the God of the sun and war and the other for the God of rain.
  18. Aztecs and human sacrifices
  19. They believed the world will end and in order for the God to keep the world safe they believed they need to sacrifice human blood.
  20. Children where sacrificed to the rain god
  21. Moctezuma à king of the Aztecs (the lord of the Aztecs) … 3000 servants over a 1000 wife’s
  22. The “White people” Spanish came
  23. The city of the true cross
  24. Cortés Spanish conquistador came a man of action, Aztecs conquered from Spain
  25. Cortes invaded the kingdom of Moctezuma.
  26. Cortez found the beautiful city of Tenochtitlan (artificial islands)
  27. Apart from the invasion a plague also weakened the Aztects.
  28. The Spaniards were too powerful, had horses they had weapons,advance technology etc.
  29. The end of the city of Tenochtitlan
  30. From the ruins of the Aztec Empire would emerge a new city.–> Mexico City
  31. The Aztec kingdom became the Spanish colony of new Spain.
  32. From Tenochtitlan to Mexico City.
  33. The Spaniards moved in the immediately the process of racial mixture began.
  34. By 1800, 5 million people leaved in Mexico. More than 1 miilion were mestizos ( Spanish and indian) another million where creoles mexica born Spaniards
  35. After 3 centuries of Spanish rule. More than 2million were pure blooded Indians
  36. At that time to be part of the Europeans you had more benefits.
  37. Most of inidians were trying to become Europeansà more benefits in business healthcare etc..
  38. Catholic Church primary force
  39. More than just a religion institution, the church permeated Mexican society, It was a dominant social thread powerful political force and the most visible authority in the nation.
  40. The Indians of Mexico adapted to the icons and rituals of the Roman Catholic church.
  41. Even the fundamental belief the sacrifice of the Christ on the cross was easily meshed with the indian believe of blood sacrifice.
  42. Several Indian gods were cristianished taking the identity of a Catholic saint.
  43. The Aztec Goddess was resaintified as the àThe virgin of quadelupe. An Indian incarnation of the virgin Mary .
  44. The Spanish churched dominated the towns in Mexico. The Churches were symbols of power of the Spanish rule.
  45. Unity of Church and State.
  46. Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
  47. The father of Mexican independence
  48. He offered hope, change, freedom from the oppression they felt, he offered the possibility of a better life and Mexican followed him.
  49. 80000 peasants
  50. when he was about to invate Mexico city he changed him mind, he hesitated ( coming from Guanajuato)
  51. Hidalgos army was devastated. Hidalgo was executed by the state in 1811.
  52. Agustin de Iturbide with an agreement to join forces with the rebels–> new flag, three color of revolution à red for the union of Indian and Spaniards, white for the purity of their catholic religion and green for their independence.
  53. Agustin succeeded ( Indian, mestizo, creole) September in 1821 after 3 centuries of Spanish rule Mexico was finally free.
  54. Santa Anna 30 years of rule
  55. 1830s- the boundaries of the United States and those of Mexico were destined to collide in Texas
  56. Texas Revolution.
  57. Santa Anna recognized the Texas independence in exchange of his life after many battles between the Mexicans and Texas people.
  58. Texas was lost forever. The Mexican army was Brocken and demoralized.
  59. French invated Mexico
  60. Problems between Americans and Mexicans has began.
  61. Mexico-U.S War (April 25, 1846 – February 2, 1848)
  62. ……..
  63. Benito Pablo Juárez García, the first Indian president of Mexico.1858–1861.
  64. The Mexican lost a devastated war in the 1840s to the United States and gave a huge amount of lands to the Americans. The had been concurred by French and ruled by an Austrian emperor
  65. By the time the French were over thrown the country was in shambles: transportation was terrible and communications were in sad states of disrepair, the economy was in shambles, agriculture was in a terrible situation because of the lack of use of modern agricultural technics. It was a country that hardly had been touched by technological advances of the 19th
  66. With the death of the immensely popular Indian president Benito Pablo Juárez García in 1872, emerge the most prominent politician in the country next Porfirio Díaz.–> the need to establish stability in Mexico.( mexico was the most unstable nations in Latin America. à Porfirio Díaz belived that he had to stabilize the country through forceà Mexican army and national police force (the 5000 Rurales)
  67. Foreign money came into Mexico for more than tequila, girls and gambling
  68. By the early 1900s American investors like the Guggenheims started to poor money in Mexico because of cheep labor.
  69. American investments crew very quickly over a billion dollars.
  70. Porfirio Díaz the first head of state who had a good reputation abroad (Europe and the united states)à the reason he was favorably considered à he did stabilize his countryà he did modernized his countryà he did invite foreign capital and he protected foreign capital.
  71. Even in his portraits he becomes more lighter skinned so he looks more American and European.(?!) they speculate that he was using make up so you looked whiter and more acceptable to Europeans.
  72. Porfirio Díazà responsible for remarkable changes. à New factories- mines- trains.–> Mexico industrial age.
  73. Oil was found in the Mexican gulf coast and it was American and British companie who came and invest.
  74. –>streets –>ports–> telegraph–>railroad–> Installation of telephone and telegrah systems–>open mexico into the outside world in a new kind of way.
  75. However working conditions for the peasants and the very poor servants were terrible.the wages were very low and barely can survived from these conditions.
  76. Mexico City was remodeled along European lines. Most public building mostly designed by foreign architects. Even the house and villas took European fashion and manners.
  77. Dissatisfaction in the middle class.
  78. After a 3 decades of oppression. A Mexican leader was seriously challenge Porfirio Díaz (Francisco Indalecio Madero)
  79. Francisco Madero –>concered about social problems, however a member of the elite. –>represented political chance–> a new oppening
  80. 3 very different men will lead a revolution.
  81. Emiliano Zapata, a 31 year old poor horse trador from the south. Pancho Villa, A notorious man from the north and an idealistic land owner.
  82. June 1910 Francisco Madero entered Mexico city in triumph. But the revolution was not over. Emiliano Zapata pleated with Madero to allow his peasants in the south to keep the land they had won with their own blood.But Madero refused. Emiliano Zapata–>was outraged and considered Madero a tredor to the poor.
  83. By 1913 Emiliano Zapataà revolution against Madero.
  84. 1920 the revolution finally ended when Caranza himself–> Álvaro Obregón
  85. the population has been reduced by a million and half.
  86. After 10 years of chaos–> Alvaro Obregon brought an order and stability to Mexico since the days of the dictator Porfirio Díaz
  87. Mexico was to enjoy a half century of relative peace and progress under the new order.
  88. The system he established raised hopes for a better life for Mexicans and à gave millions of acers to peasantsà built schools
  89. Most importantly a new political partly was created that monopolized political power in the country, which provider much stability and order.
  90. The greatest problem inheritade from the Mexican Revolution was the issue of presidential successà to over come this they establish one strong political party (PRI)
  91. Mexico in the modern era. Even the revolution millions of its people remained poor. Where Mexico itself has a rich land full of natural resources. –>the majority of the people didn’t benefits from it
  92. 1920-1930s developed on of the worlds greates oil deposits. American and European investments.
  93. In the 19th cectury American stole half of Mexican territory.
  94. 1938 the PRI . expel the foreigners, the wealth flowing from Mexico’s oil field now goes to Mexico not to foreignersà nationalize the oil industry à Americans were outraged and they believed that the Mexicans would be incapable to run by them selves the oil industry à at the end nationalization of the oil didn’t happened because the economy would have greater high inflation numbers.
  95. However from the oil industry–> PRI did benefit. –> corruption
  96. Protest from students against PRI monopolistic power.–> many students were killed in order to control the situation.
  97. Today the PRI remains the dominant force of Mexican politics
  98. Despite its power–> corruptionà fraud–> unable to control illegal immigration–>unable to control drag trade
  99. 1968 Olympics.
  100. Mexico Is a remarkable resilient nation.
  101. NAFTA agreement. ( North American Free Trade Agreement) 1983. Trade barrier between Canada, Mexico and the U.S loweredà Aim for Mexico and the U.S to benefit from free trade. To create better economy for Mexico à good neighbor policy
  102. Mexico city with a population of 20 million –> area 950 sq miles –> 3xNY
  103. Nearly 3 centuries Spain ruled Mexico,
  104. After 300 years broke free from Spain but it could not so easly break the legacy of violence–> civil wars –>foreign invasions and revolutions have left lasting marks. The Mexican people were shaped by battle and blood–> still struggle to master the forces of fate, fortune and power.
  105. One of the Greatest Metropolis, remains a land of wild and salvage beauty.

 

I will put the visits on another post… this is already too….. long.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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